Lenola Allen-Sommerville, Historical Reflection: A Millennium Update, (Des Moines: Iowa Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc., 2004).

Richard J. Carlson, (compiler).  “Addresses of Black Residents of Iowa City in the Early to Mid-Twentieth Century.”  Database compiled from federal and state census records and Iowa City city directories, 1900–1959, and “Black Students at SUI and their Addresses from Student Directories.”  Database of black students at the State University of Iowa, 1904–1927, compiled from student directories. (Copies of each on file at the Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City).

Gabriel Victor Cools, The Negro in Typical Communities of Iowa, (Master of Arts thesis, The State University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1918).

Paula Giddings, In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement, (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1988).

Lena M. Hill and Michael D. Hill (editors), Invisible Hawkeyes: African Americans at the University of Iowa During the Long Civil Rights Era, (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2016).

Philip G. Hubbard, My Iowa Journey: The Life Story of the University of Iowa’s First African American Professor, (Iowa City, Iowa:  University of Iowa Press, 1999).

Herbert Crawford Jenkins, The Negro Student at the University of Iowa: A Sociological Study,  (Unpublished Master of Arts thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1933).

Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America, (New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2005).

James W. Loewen, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, (New York: The New Press, 2005).

Jan Olive Nash, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, Bethel A. M. E. Church, Iowa City, Johnson County, Iowa. 

The Online Reference Guide to African American History (website).

Robert L Owens, III. Oral History “Spoken Memories.”  (Interviewed on September 1, 2009, by interviewer Charles Johnson of the Zion Baptist Church [Washington, D.C.] Historical and Preservation Commission’s Oral History Committee. Transcript available on the Humanities DC website.

Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, (New York: Liverwright Publishing Corp., a division of W. W. Norton & Co., 2017).

Bill Silag, Susan Koch-Bridgeford, and Hal Chase (editors), Outside In: African-American History in Iowa, 1838–2000 (Des Moines: State Historical Society of Iowa, 2001).

Elizabeth “Bettye” Crawford Tate Papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

City Government